Land surveying is critical for the design and construction of various aspects like roads, buildings, and so on. Surveys are conducted to mark boundaries, map the topography of land, create elevations for buildings to ward off floods, to ascertain that buildings have been constructed as per particular recommendations, to map river bottoms for dredging, layout photo control for aerial photography, map the layout of tunnels, airports, etc.
All land surveying activities must be done accurately to achieve the best results. Surveyors, therefore, need to use particular equipment to carry out their tasks and they may include:
GPS equipment- It is used to take variations in height between two points, their distance and directions by contacting the satellite.
Tripod equipment- Tripods are used to support surveying instruments such as theodolites, total stations, levels or transits. It ought to be stable because when it is moved, it must be reset and a survey repeated. Tripod equipment can get waterlogged and produce inaccurate results, so their material should be carefully selected.
Measurement equipment- The most regular measuring item used is a wheel. It is usually revolved along a particular distance while an odometer counts its revolutions.
Theodolites- They are used to determine horizontal and vertical angles, elevation and height.
Laser levels- They give off beams of laser light that is used to determine elevation. They are of different types due to the many tasks that are carried out during construction. They are either self-level or manual. Self-level lasers find their own levels independently, while manual lasers require being adjusted while in use.
Laser receivers- They are used with laser levels to cover a much wider area that needs to be surveyed. They pick up beams from the laser levels and adjust their height until the right level has been found, at which point the receiver emits a constant sound. They make it possible to use laser levels outside and when the sun is shining so bright.
Single or dual grade lasers- They are utilized when slopes require being assessed. Single grade lasers are used to acquire the gradient of one plane, while dual grade lasers work on two planes simultaneously.
Rotating and straight line lasers- Rotating lasers give off beams of laser light from a beacon that evaluate an area across 360 degrees, while straight line lasers are used to generate crosses or plumb lines.
Pipe lasers- This type is used when new pipes, drains, or sewers are being installed. When a pipe is placed in a trench, they are used to determine the accurate placement of the rest of the pipes on the same line and gradient.